Optimize the business environment and adhere to the safety bottom line-work related to strengthening engineering design safety supervision
At present, in the context of continuously optimizing the business environment and deepening the reform of the approval system for engineering construction projects, how to learn and implement the "Regulations on Optimizing the Business Environment" (State Council Order No. 722), and implement the "About improving the quality assurance system" The spirit and requirements of Guiding Opinions on Improving the Quality of Construction Engineering (Guo Ban Han  No. 92), strengthening engineering design safety supervision, and promoting the realization of the reform of the approval system have become one of the important issues that need to be resolved in the review of construction drawings. .
Optimizing the business environment is a major deployment made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council. It is the basic guarantee and important support for implementing new development concepts, achieving high-quality development, and continuing to promote reform and opening up. The reform of the approval system for engineering construction projects is an important part of optimizing the business environment, and it will directly affect the effect of optimizing the business environment. To ensure the smooth progress of the reform of the construction approval system, it is necessary to properly handle the relationship between the reform and the prevention of safety risks in construction projects. To properly handle this relationship, we must adhere to the principle of overall consideration and keeping the bottom line. We should not use the pretext of safeguarding security as an obstacle to reform, nor should we sacrifice security for exchange for reform. Judging from the current situation, in order to reduce the examination and approval process and reduce the examination and approval time, the function of safety "management" is constantly weakening, and engineering safety accidents have gradually increased, and the frequent occurrence of accidents has appeared. In particular, the safety supervision of so-called "simple and low-risk" small projects has been repeated, and people have not paid enough attention to such projects. The design and construction will not be carried out by large units, and some even have no formality at all. design. At the same time that the security risks have increased sharply after the "release", the "management" has disappeared or is lagging behind. The recent number of reconstruction engineering accidents across the country also illustrates the severity of this problem. Therefore, if we want to always adhere to the principles, set the direction, and keep steady, to achieve the goal of reforming the approval system of engineering construction projects and to continuously optimize the business environment, we must arm the mind with Xi Jinping ’s new-style socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics. "Don't forget the original intention, keep the mission in mind", study in depth and clarify the direction, review the process, clear the source, examine the problems and find the reasons, be brave in self-revolution, establish and reform, and constantly improve the relevant systems and related measures.
In-depth study and comprehension of General Secretary Xi Jinping's relevant instructional spirit, clear direction and raise awareness
By studying General Secretary Xi Jinping's concept of national security, discussions that adhere to the bottom-line thinking, and thoughts of ecological civilization, clear directions and raise awareness:
Engineering design safety must be understood from the height of national security
The security of construction projects directly affects the people's sense of security. Security is the foundation of happiness. Without security, there can be no happiness. In particular, the safety of housing is directly related to the safety of people's lives and property. Housing is the biggest property of the people in their lives. If there are security problems or hidden dangers, they will bring serious social stability problems.
Must attach importance to engineering design safety from the perspective of ensuring high-quality development
The safety of engineering design is the cornerstone of high-quality development in the field of engineering construction in China. Without the most basic security guarantee, there can be no high-quality development.
Must take a bottom-line approach to prevent and resolve engineering design security risks
Comprehensively summarize, summarize, and analyze the safety issues in engineering design documents, identify key points and links of safety risks, analyze their causes, grasp their essence, actively respond, and take effective measures to establish a safe risk prevention and control system and guarantee system In order to "be proactive, take precautions, see Weizhi works, prevent Weidu gradually".
Must adhere to the principle of ecological environment priority
Controlling the implementation and implementation of green building design standards and energy-saving design standards in engineering construction projects, and avoiding problems that affect the ecological environment and safety due to design reasons, are important basic links to ensure green development.
We must adhere to the principle of harmonization of reform, prevention and mitigation of security risks
It is necessary to correctly understand and understand the spirit and essence of the Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on the Implementation of the Reform of the Examination and Approval System for Engineering Construction Projects (Guo Ban Fa  No. 11). The implementation opinions clearly stated: "To expedite the exploration and cancellation of the review of construction drawings (or to reduce the scope of the review), the implementation of the notification commitment system and the designer's life-long responsibility system, etc., to form a replicable and scalable experience as soon as possible; Technical examinations such as fire protection, civil air defense, and technical defense are incorporated into the construction drawing review, and relevant departments will no longer conduct technical examinations. " It should be seen from this: "Exploration cancellation" is not exploration cancellation security. Exploration must be carried out on the premise of being able to control and prevent security risks, and on the basis of ensuring the safety of engineering construction project design documents. In the future exploration and practice, we will attach great importance to the implementation of the main responsibility of engineering design and the construction of the integrity system of relevant parties; straighten out the relationship between the main responsibility and the supervision responsibility, and clarify the relationship between the practice risk and the supervision risk; recognize the potential Hidden risks, and respond to the challenges that may arise from profit-driven; Based on the experience of foreign countries, based on the actual situation, explore the establishment of a more complete, more efficient, and more reliable engineering design security system to ensure foolproofness.
Keep in mind the original intention of the construction drawing review system and recognize the safety risks
In the 1990s, the quality and safety supervision system of engineering construction in China was not perfect, and the situation of engineering quality and safety was severe and the risks were intensified. According to incomplete statistics, on average, a house collapse accident occurs every three days in the country, and nearly 50% of these accidents are caused by design quality and safety issues. In particular, the collapse of the Rainbow Bridge over the Minjiang River in Chongqing in 1999 killed 40 people and injured 14 others. One of the main reasons for this accident was a serious flaw in the design, which caused widespread concern and concern about the quality and safety of the project. At that time, the central leadership attached great importance to the need to improve the engineering quality management system and strictly control the quality and safety of engineering construction projects.
At that time, after full foreign, overseas, and domestic investigations, in order to strengthen the supervision of quality and safety, based on the practices in developed countries and regions, and based on the actual situation in China, the construction drawing review system was piloted. Some provinces and cities have achieved good results. On the basis of summing up the pilot experience, China formally established a construction drawing review system in 2000. Since the implementation of the construction drawing review system in China for 19 years, a large number of hidden safety hazards existing in engineering design documents have been eliminated through the construction drawing review, a large number of engineering safety accidents have been avoided, and house collapse accidents due to design reasons have basically been eliminated. Compared with the situation in the 1990s, the review of construction drawings has played an irreplaceable role in ensuring the safety of construction projects.
Nationally speaking, the overall quality of engineering design in Beijing is relatively high, but judging from the review data of various projects in Beijing over the years, the situation is not optimistic. The status of Beijing's 2018 housing construction engineering review data alone can map the status of the quality of engineering design across the country: the total area of newly-built buildings in Beijing that passed the construction drawing review in 2018 was 54.38 million square meters, and violations were detected and corrected Mandatory provisions for construction standards 1663, average 0.31 per 10,000 square meters; 75594 violations of general provisions for engineering construction standards were detected and corrected, an average of 13.91 per 10,000 square meters; 4123 violations of regulations were detected and corrected , An average of 0.76 per 10,000 square meters; 22,911 violations of design depth requirements were found, with an average of 4.21 per 10,000 square meters; the pass rate for a review was zero. The total area of internal renovation projects that passed the construction drawing review in 2018 was 9.12 million square meters. 2061 violations of mandatory provisions of engineering construction standards were identified and corrected, with an average of 2.27 per 10,000 square meters. General violations of engineering construction standards were identified and corrected. There are 32,848 issues with an average of 36 per 10,000 square meters; 2661 violations of laws and regulations are detected and corrected, with an average of 2.92 per 10,000 square meters; 14,843 violations of design depth regulations are detected, with an average of 16.29 per 10,000 square meters; The review has a zero pass rate. Most of the violations of compulsory provisions found are related to issues that seriously affect safety. Most of the problems of violations of general provisions and design depth requirements are also related to safety. Partly related to ecological environment security. These data indicate that the security risk situation of engineering design is still severe, especially for internal renovation projects.
In the review of construction drawings of various types of projects, there are many cases of security risks, including both general high probability problems and individual low probability problems. Judging from these typical cases, engineering design safety risks can be described as ubiquitous, including foundation foundation safety, main structure safety, structural seismic safety, structural component safety, civil defense protection safety, fire safety, ecological environment safety, use safety, etc. Accidents caused by safety risks may occur during the construction process, or during use, or they may suddenly occur in the event of an emergency or natural disaster. In the face of risk challenges and the need for reform, we must be well-prevented and effective. We must be vigilant against both low-probability security risks and high-probability security risks; we must have the first hand to prevent engineering security risks, and also have to deal with reform, High tricks to achieve your goals.
Finding out the influence factors of construction drawing review to optimize the business environment and the reasons
The length of the review period for construction drawings of engineering construction projects has directly affected the continuous advancement and improvement of the business environment. The span of the construction drawing review refers to the continuous time from the start of the review to the approval of the design drawings of the project. It covers the links of review, acceptance, preliminary review, design modification, review review, review, and issuance of review documents. The "review time limit" in the "Administrative Measures for the Review of Construction Drawings and Design Documents of Housing Construction and Municipal Infrastructure Projects" by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development is not a concept. The latter refers to the initial review time, excluding design modification and review time.
Judging from the relevant links of the construction drawing review span cycle, the factors that cause it to be too long are many, the most important of which are: one is that the quality of the submitted drawings is generally low; the other is that the design modification cannot be in place at one time and requires more The third is that the review has a wide scope and many contents; the fourth is that the joint review is not in place; the fifth is that it is difficult to digitize the review method; the sixth is that the institution building and the quality and ability of its personnel need to be further improved.
According to the analysis of the main factors that cause the construction drawing review period to be too long, the causes are multifaceted, both deep and superficial, both internal and external, and both active and passive. of. It can be seen that there are many reasons for the long period of review of construction drawings, and the following are the main aspects:
The design market is gradually relaxed and the threshold is reduced. The number of companies and personnel that can be engaged in is increasing. The design market is also gradually shrinking compared with previous years. Market competition is intensifying. Short cycles and low fees have become the most important competition conditions, and quality has become less important. Competitive conditions; design status is declining, and talent is draining. The composition of the team shows that there are mostly young people who can move and seniors who can't work, and young people who are both capable and capable. As soon as I graduated, I started designing and lacked guidance. The quality of the design can be imagined. Furthermore, the construction unit is willing to spend a lot of time and expenses on project planning, and hires foreign teams and discusses solutions, but only I hope to complete the construction drawing design in the shortest time and at the lowest cost; knowing that the depth is insufficient, without a third-level school review, and forcing a review, so the review will not be fast and passable; at the modification stage, whether or not it is improved, It must be re-reviewed at the end, so that the re-review will not pass. Such a repeated and vicious cycle. It takes a lot of energy to design and review the plan, but the efficiency is lost. It can be seen that strict control over the submitted drawings and modification of the quality of the drawings are the keys to improving the efficiency of the examination.
At the same time that the design market was deregulated, effective government supervision not only failed to come into place at the same time, but also the review of construction drawings as the sole focus of supervision also showed a weakening trend, and the role of government supervision in guiding the rational allocation of corporate resources became smaller and smaller. In addition, some people have insufficient understanding of the designer's responsibility system. They only see the rights, they do not see the risks and responsibilities, and they do not realize the benefits of the government's "management" to eliminate security risks and avoid practice risks. The weakening of government supervision. Judging from a large number of foreign investigations, what is worthy of deep reflection is that in developed countries where the integrity system is complete, the insurance system is complete, the employment access mechanism is perfect, and the practice responsibility is in place, the implementation of the government's "management" system for security has been subject to The great respect and support is precisely due to its complete legal system, sound integrity mechanism, and effective implementation. These successful experiences are worth learning from in practice.
China's current engineering construction standards have many types, broad contents, and complicated provisions. Most of them are contents that must be reviewed, especially in areas where multiple reviews are implemented in one. Review efficiency.
Nationally, the implementation of joint review has not been fully implemented, which has affected the improvement of review efficiency. To analyze the reasons, one is that the operating mechanism has not yet been established; the other is that the relevant talent reserves are insufficient or the training is not in place; the third is that the review standards are not clear. Practice has shown that incorporating technical inspections such as fire-fighting design review and special civil air defense review into construction drawing review, and implementing multi-review integration, can only save at least 70% of the accumulated time of the original multi-technical review.
Since the digital map review system was first implemented in Shanghai in 2015, most regions across the country have also established their own digital map review systems based on actual conditions and implemented them one after another. From the perspective of the construction of digital map review systems nationwide, very few can actually achieve digital map review, but many follow suit and follow the form. Its main manifestations are as follows: First, the engineering design unit has not really realized digital delivery. The construction design documents submitted to the review process and passed the review have not been stamped with a valid electronic signature with digital certification, and remain only in the online electronic transfer mode stage; the second is that the system leaves traces unreal. The phenomenon of offline first-review and online-back-to-go processes is more common, digitalization has become a form, relevant digital information obtained by government departments is not true, and effective supervision functions and traceability functions have failed. Third, the system has insufficient scalability. There is a lack of connection between the system and the government engineering construction project approval system, and mutual promotion and sharing cannot be formed. Fourth, the system is not highly scalable. The system does not consider intelligent expansion, and there is no room for expansion and improvement. Fifth, the digital information is incomplete. The system's digital information has too few point settings, and the statistics and analysis functions are single.It is difficult to provide relevant support for related decision-making and smart city construction. Such digital review of maps not only fails to improve efficiency, but sometimes reduces efficiency.
Since the implementation of the construction drawing review system, some inherent problems have been affecting the healthy development of the industry: First, the nature of the review has been repeatedly questioned, and the status of the review has been challenged several times, resulting in the necessity of the review being questioned and its role ignored. At present, the practice of canceling or disguising the review of construction drawings in some areas has reflected the seriousness of this problem; the second is that the market-oriented operation presents disorderly competition, and the review agency's survival depends too much on the construction unit and design unit, which is affected by interests. The review is gradually in the form; the third is the implementation of construction plans in some regions to review the implementation of government purchase services, the government's financial funds are insufficient or in place, and the maintenance of the livelihood of review institutions is difficult; Insufficient phenomenon and uneven quality of review; Fifth, affected by various factors, the employment degree of construction drawing review is too low to attract better talents to participate in the review of construction drawings; Sixth is the review of the technical entry and exit mechanism of technical personnel Not sound. Professional training and ethics education for employees are not in place. Examination standards and standards are not uniform across regions, agencies, and personnel. Some reviewers have no sense of heart and are afraid to take responsibility. There is a phenomenon of excessive review. Some reviewers have over-qualified the issue, and there is a phenomenon of "striking with the strong strip". Individual reviewers are stubborn and incapable of communication. There is a phenomenon of "not high level and high level", and they will not be allowed to pass without change. What's more, some organizations have "bad rent-seeking" and "eating and getting cards", which have extremely bad influences. Seventh, a small number of review institutions have insufficient internal management and insufficient staffing power. Responsibility.
Adhere to the bottom line of security, adhere to and continuously improve the plan review system
Aiming at the problems under review and the reasons for their formation, in order to meet the needs of continuously optimizing the business environment, we must adhere to the safety bottom line, and substantially improve the efficiency of plan review, and insist on and continuously improve the plan review system. Its main work should be carried out in an orderly manner from the following aspects:
The practice of canceling or disguising construction drawing review in individual areas is worth exploring
The government bears the responsibility for the safety supervision of engineering design, and the cancellation or disguise of the review of construction drawings in individual areas has brought great safety supervision risks to itself. If, in the 1990s, "an average house collapse accident occurred every three days across the country, The repetition of the phenomenon will cause great losses to people ’s lives and property, and it will cause great social instability and even threaten national security. As a result, phenomena such as interest-driven design violations, unconscious design violations, trilateral projects, market emphasis, and quality will emerge. It is worrying that the commitment system alone guarantees the design safety of the foundation foundation, main structure, earthquake resistance, civil defense protection, fire protection, ecological environment, and use. "The wise will prevent the evil from happening, and the wise will plan for the future." Only actively respond to problems and challenges, always thinking about the goals of reform, always "safe without forgetting danger", firm system self-confidence, and timely rectification of problems found. , And advance in an orderly manner to achieve the goal of "safety and efficiency."
Clarify the nature and positioning of the plan review
From the legislative level, we further clarified the nature of "management" and the position of "holding the safety bottom line"; the map review system is a regular international system, and the state's positioning of "management" and "keeping the bottom line" of map review, They are also made clear by law. As a result, the following consensus was reached: to maintain the safety bottom line of engineering design, supervision must be strengthened, and a pre-supervision approach must be adopted to prevent and mitigate safety risks; according to its nature and positioning, it is recommended to change the original "construction drawing review" to "design safety review", referred to as “Plan review”; Summarize the 19 years of experience in the implementation of the construction plan review system, see its role, recognize its shortcomings, and continuously improve and improve the plan review system; recognize the implementation of the plan review system at a higher level, and keep the engineering design safe The significance, importance, and necessity of the bottom line, and firm confidence in the picture review system.
Establish a healthy and sustainable operating mechanism
According to the nature of "management", it reflects the government's supervisory functions, establishes a healthy and orderly operation mechanism of map review under the leadership of the government, cancels the pure market-oriented operation mode, and establishes a task allocation model guided by the dynamic review of map review agencies to allow map review Institutions have higher or lower levels in terms of internal construction, quality of review, responsibility, and social contributions; those with high assessment scores will have an increase in task share, and those with low assessment scores will have their task share reduced, and dynamic adjustment will be implemented. Based on this, the healthy and sustainable development of map review work is continuously promoted.
Implementation of multi-trial integration
Really incorporate technical inspections such as fire protection design review, civil air defense project special review, lightning protection review, etc. into the drawing review and ensure the implementation on the ground, and achieve "a set of drawings, a standard, an institution, a review, a result, mutual recognition, joint Regulation. Taking this as an opportunity, it highlights the nature of administrative permission for fire protection design review stipulated in the "Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", further demonstrates the role of "tube management", confirms the meaning of "tube management", and greatly improves the efficiency of "tube management". .
Streamline picture review content
With the goal of controlling the foundation and main structure, civil defense, fire protection, ecological environment, and the use of safety bottom lines, reduce the content of the review, unify the review standards and standards, and promote the establishment of a national standard system with the goal of “focusing on safety and ensuring the bottom line” And sound.
Adopt the method of node-by-node graph review to connect the approval of construction permits at each node
The foundation, underground, and above-ground design of the project will be reviewed on a node-by-node basis, and the node approval documents will be issued. The construction permit department may issue construction permits for earthwork, foundation, underground, and above-ground node projects based on the documents approved by each node. Significantly advance project start time.
Implement digital map review
The first is to realize the digital delivery of engineering design documents and achieve effective electronic signature certification; the second is to achieve zero errands, paperlessness, online transmission, online review, push drawings approved by the online review, submit review documents online, and Supervision and inspection; Third, to achieve full traceability, traceability, and based on systemic traces, government departments implement dynamic and effective supervision of engineering design enterprises and practitioners, and drawing review agencies and practitioners. Adopt the method of “reporting first, then setting up institutions” to avoid offline first trials. Take the quality of submitted drawings as the basis for supervision and control the quality of submitted drawings. Take the number of re-examinations as a regulatory indicator to effectively control the number of re-examinations. At the same time, it is necessary to standardize the drawing review activities of drawing review agencies and practitioners, and supervise the drawing review quality and efficiency according to the situation of leaving marks. The fourth is to strengthen the docking with the government engineering construction project approval system to achieve pushability and sharing. The fifth is to achieve full digital And full information to provide strong support for government-related decision-making and smart city construction. Sixth, to achieve the goal of "timeliness and expansion of space adequacy" for the implementation of the reform, to ensure that the reform goals are quickly achieved, and that the system can be continuously optimized and improved. Achieve the goal of "negotiable and appealable" in disputes. Establish a system platform expert bank, establish a dispute determination mechanism, and resolve disputes in a timely manner.
Insist on not for profit
The chart review fee is determined according to the comprehensive information of the chart review cost element information, eliminating the profit-oriented factors, and the basic principle of charging is "meeting the labor costs of high-level technical personnel required by the chart review, and the operating cost of the organization"; Service model to solve the problem that it is difficult to pay this cost or not in place in some financially difficult areas. At the same time, it can also eliminate the social fairness caused by it. The investor of the investment project pays, and whoever benefits will pay for it. From the perspective of a large number of foreign and overseas investigations, this is also the common practice in developed countries and regions; the limited financial funds saved will be used for people's livelihood work that requires more financial support and In social public affairs, not only can we ensure social fairness, but also ensure the timely payment of fees for drawing review, ensure the daily cost of drawing review, and lay the foundation for the stability of the drawing review talent team.
Strengthening the construction of chart review agencies
The image review agency must stand at the height of social responsibility, and take the maintenance and improvement of the status of image review as the guide to continuously improve the internal construction, continuously improve the internal and external environment, create a good social image, play a window role, and increase the society's recognition of image review. Degree, awareness; from the perspective of being a good government assistant, guided by the pursuit of service satisfaction, continuously strengthening service awareness, improving service levels and capabilities, serving the government, the society, and the industry; in pursuit of employee benefits As a guide, continue to strengthen the internal management and upgrade, continuously improve the work recognition, gain and happiness of employees, continue to increase the attractiveness of the industry, and attract more outstanding talents to engage in map review work; Improve the construction of the security system and the management system; take the creation of an excellent team as the guide, establish a mechanism for training and education in talent practice, strengthen continuing education in practice, and continuously improve the quality, level, and ability of employees.
Establishing the admission and exit mechanism for plan review practitioners
Establish a personal integrity system, establish a linkage mechanism between personal integrity records and the entry and exit of employees; unify standards and standards, crack over-censorship, and open "strong bars" at will; resolutely prevent the phenomenon of "not high level and high shelf"; Resolutely remove from the picture review team the people who corrupted the image review and had bad behaviors such as "eating and taking cards".
Promote the sharing of map review resources across the country
Break the localization restrictions of map review, establish a local map review access and exit mechanism, with the goal of promoting resource sharing, promoting common progress, and ensuring quality and efficiency, formulate relevant methods and encourage policies, and be a competent and qualified map review agency To provide the basis for undertaking tasks nationwide, to encourage plan review agencies to be superior, stronger, and larger, to survive the fittest, and to eliminate the impact of regional imbalances in development.
Learn and learn from mature experiences and practices in developed countries and regions
The developed countries and regions, such as the United States, Canada, Europe, and Hong Kong, have always established a plan review system, and government departments have implemented supervision over engineering design safety and public interest protection in accordance with the law. Learn and draw on its mature experience and practices in legislation, operating mechanism, plan review standards, plan review process, legislative law enforcement environment construction, practice responsibilities and government supervision responsibilities definition, enterprise and individual risk prevention and control, and role of industry organizations Combined with China's actual situation, it can form replicable and popularizable experience, comprehensively improve related work, and promote the continuous progress and development of China's related system.
Promote the construction of the integrity system of the engineering design industry
Establish the personal integrity files of engineering design enterprises and employees, and do a good job of linkage with the market access and exit mechanism to promote the establishment of a fair and orderly engineering design market competition environment; explore the implementation of engineering design industry access insurance mechanisms, and secure safety At the same time of risk, standardize the business practices of enterprises and individuals, so that those companies and individuals who have serious bad records in security cannot get the "warranty" that allows them to practice and lose their qualifications.
Promote the construction of the integrity system of the construction party
In order to strengthen the risk responsibility of the first responsible person of project quality and safety, establish a linkage mechanism between the builder's integrity and market access and exit, and participate in the builders who have had bad records such as malicious design violations, shortened construction periods, and reduced costs. Project bidding is restricted. In addition, exploring the introduction of market access insurance mechanisms and using market means to regulate their behavior is an efficient and practical method.
The safety of engineering construction projects involves national security and is also a national event. The establishment of a complete engineering construction project safety guarantee system and risk prevention system with prior review of plans, on-site supervision during the event, and insurance after the event is gradually implemented. The spirit of the Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the important measures to promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, adhere to the continuous improvement of the system, and govern the country according to law are also long-term and arduous system tasks in the construction field. Continuously optimize the business environment to lay a more solid foundation, build more room for improvement, and create more favorable opportunities.
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